Ministry of Education MBBS Entrance Examination Syllabus
- Fundamental physical quantities. Units and dimensions vectors addition and subtraction. Scalar and vector products of two vectors.
- Kinematics: velocity and speed, acceleration – velocity time graph: equation of motion
with uniform acceleration: projectile motion. Newton's laws of motion. Principle of
conservation of linear momentum, work done by constant and variable force, energy and
power. potentioal and kinetic energy, conservative and non-conservative forces,
conservation of energy, renewable and non-renewable sources of energy, elastic and
- Circular motion: Centripetal force, centrifugal force and its applications.
- Gravitation: Newton's laws of gravitation, variation of acceleration due to gravity,
gravitational field intensity, gravitational potential, potential energy in a gravitational field,
geostationary satellites, orbital velocity, praking orbits, potential and kinetic energy of
satellites, escape velocity.
- Rotational motion: Kinetic energy due to rotational motion, torque and couple, work done
by a torque, moment of inertia; angular momentum and its conservation, K.E. of a rolling
- Simple Harmonic Motion: simple pendulum, oscillating systems, spring and mass, P.E.
and K.E. in oscillating systems.
- Elasticity: molecular theory, stress, strain, Hook's law, Young's, shear and bulk modulii,
energy stored in a stretched wire, force in a bar due to contraction or expansion.
- Surface tension: molecular theory of surface tension, surface energy, excess pressure
inside a spherical liquid surface, angle of contact and capillary action.
- Viscosity: streamline, & turbulent flows, velocity gradient, Newton's formula, coefficient of
viscosity, Poiseuille's formula, Stoke's law, methods of determination of coefficient of
- Heat & temperature: thermal equilibrium heat capacity, principle of calorimetry, cooling
laws, latent heat, thermal expansion of solid, liquid and gas, thermal stress, barometric
correction, absolute temperature, kinetic theory of gases, ideal gas equation.
- Transmission of heat: conduction, temperature gradient, conductivity, convection, radiation,
black body, Wien's displacement law, Stefan's law, Kirchhoff’s law.
- Hygrometry: relative and absolute humidity, phase diagram and triple point.
- Thermodynamics: heat and work, internal energy, first law of thermodynamics, heat
capacities of a gas, isothermal, isobaric, isoscoric and adiabatic processes, second law of
thermodynamics, Carnot's cycles, entropy.
- Reflection at plane and curved surfaces: refraction at plane surfaces, refractive indices,
lateral shift, critical angle, total internal reflection and its applications including optical fiber,
refraction through prism, converging and diverging lenses, lens maker's formula and
combination of lenses, defects of vision, correcting lenses.
- Dispersion of light: white light spectrum, dispersive power, chromatic aberration,
achromatic combination of lenses, optical instrument: spectrometer, visual angle, angular
magnification, simple and compound microscope, prism binoculars, astronomical and
- Photometry: luminous flux, luminous intensity, illuminance, Lambert's consine law and
- Wave motion: free, damped and forced oscillation, resonance, longitudinal and transverse
wave motion, Progressive wave: velocity of transverse wave in a stretched string, velocity
of a longitudinal wave in a fluid, velocity of sound in air, Laplace's correction, effect of
temperature, pressure and humidity on the velocity of sound, principle of superposition:
stationary waves, waves in pipes, strings and rods, intensity and intensity level, loudness,
pitch and quality, noise pollution; beats, Doppler's effect, electromagnetic waves:
electromagnetic spectrum, Huygen's wave theory, reflection and refraction of light wave,
interference of light, coherent sources, optical path difference, phase difference,
constructive and destructive interference, Young's double slits experiment; diffraction of
light: Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, Single slit Fraunhoffer diffraction, Polarization of
light; Malus' law, Brewster's law and Polaroid.
- Electrostatics: electrostatic field: Coulomb's law, electric field, electric flux, Gauss's
theorem, potential energy, electric potential, potential gradient, action of points, Van de
Graafs generator, capacitors, combination of capacitors, action of dielectric, relative
permittivity and dielectric strength, energy of a charged capacitor, charging and
discharging of capacitors.
- Electric current: metallic conduction, potential difference, Ohm's law, Ohmic and nonOhmic
conductors, resistance: resistivity, combination of resistors, Kirchhoffs laws and its
application, heating effect of electric current, Joule's laws, thermoelectric effect,
thermocouple, chemical effect of electric current, electrolysis, Faraday's laws.
- Magnetic field: lines of forces, magnetic field due to current, Biot Savart law, Helmholtz
coils, magnetic moment of current loop, Ampere's theorem, force on conductor: force on
moving charges, Hall effect, magnetic materials, magnetization, susceptibility, permeability,
domain theory, hysteresis, dia, para, and ferro-magnetism.
- Electromagnetic induction: self induction, mutual induction, energy stored in magnetic field
of a coil, A.C. and D.C. generator, RMS value and peak value of the A.C. current; A.C.
through L.R. and C in series: power in A.C. circuit; transformer.
- Electron: Millikan's oil drop experiment, gaseous discharge, cathode rays; motion of
electron in electric field and magnetic field, thermionic emission of electrons, specific
charge of electron (e/m), cathode ray oscilloscope, photons: photoelectric effect.
- Atoms: Bohrs theory of H-atom; energy levels; excitation and ionization energies;
production of laser; its properties and uses, production of X-rays; properties and uses of Xrays;
de Broglie's wave, Nucleus: atomic number; mass number and isotopes; mass
energy relation; mass defect and binding energy. Radioactivity: properties of alpha, beta
and gamma rays, G.M. tube; absorption of beta particles and gamma rays; laws of
radioactive disintegration; half-life and mean-life; artificial disintegration; nuclear reaction;
nuclear fission and fusion; radio isotopes; radiation hazards and safety measures.
- Electronics: conductor, semiconductor and insulator, junction diode, rectifier, transistor, CE
- Language of Chemistry
Symbols and formulae, atoms and molecules, elements and compounds
- States of Matter
Molecular interpretation of three states of matter
Gaseous state: Gas laws: Goyle's Law; Charles' Law, Kelvin scale of temperature;
universal gas constant; Dalton's Law of partial pressure, Graham's law of diffusion, kinetic
theory of gases (no derivation), deviation of real gas from ideal behaviour, calculations
involving gas laws.
Liquid state: properties of liquids, solution, concentration of solution, concept of molarity,
solubility, effect of temperature on solubility, solubility curve, viscosity and surface tension.
Solid state: Properties of solids, classification of solids based on different binding forces,
crystals, crystal latrice, seven types of crystal systems.
- Laws of Stoichiometry and Avogadro's Hypothesis
Laws of stoichiometry: Law of conservation of mass, law of constant proportions, law of
multiple proportions, law of reciprocal proportions, Gay Lussac's law of gaseous volumes,
chemical calculations based on stoichiometry. Atomic and molecular masses, empirical
and molecular formula, Avogadro's hypothesis, important deductions from Avogadro's
hypothesis, Avogadro's number, mole concept, determination of chemical formulae from
percent composition, problems based on chemical equations.
- Atomic Structure:
The subatomic particles, the electrons and nucleons (protons and neutrons), their masses
and charges, the atomic mass unit, Dalton's atomic theory, Rutherford's experiment,
Bohr's model, interpretation of hydrogen spectra on the basis of Bohr's model, elementary
idea of quantum mechanical model of atom, de Broglie relation, Heisenberg uncertainty
principle, quantum numbers, atomic orbital, shapes of s and p orbitals, Pauli's exclusion
principle, Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity; Aufbau principle, quantum designation of
electrons, electronic configuration of atoms in the ground state up to Z=30, Isotopes and
fractional atomic weights, nuclear fission and fusion, radioactive disintegration and half
- Chemical Bonding
Valency, octet rule, chemical bonds and Lewis structure, ionic bonds, covalent bond,
electronegativity and ionic character of covalent bond, coordinate covalent bond, idea of
metallic bonds, intermolecular forces, van der Waal's forces, hydrogen bonding,
importance of hydrogen bonding, VSEPR theory and shapes of BeF2, BF3, CH4, H2Q,
NH3, PF5, and SF6.
- Oxidation & Reduction
Electronic concept of oxidation and reduction reactions, oxidation number, balancing
redox reactions by oxidation number and ion-electron methods.
- Periodic Table
Mendeleev's periodic table, modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, types of
elements on the basis of periodic table, periodic trends in ionization energy, electron
affinity, atomic radii, electronegavity and valency.
- Acids, Bases and Salts
Classical definition, Arrhenius concept of acids, bases and salts, Bronsted-Lowry concept,
Lewis concept, hydrogen ion concentration and pH, calculation of pH of strong acids,
neutralization, hydrolysis of salts.
- Volumetric Analysis
Equivalent weight of elements and compounds (acids, bases and salts), standard solution,
primary and secondary standards, different ways of expressing concentration of solution,
normality eqution, titration based on neutralization and redox reactions, indicator, titration
curve and selection of acid base indicator, solving problems on acidimetry and alkalimetry
involving normality and molarity.
Electrolytic and metallic conduction, Arrhenius theory of ionization, Faraday's laws
mechanism of electrolysis and criteria of product formation electrode potential, standard
electrode potential, EMF of a galvanic cell and the use of electrode potential to predict a
chemical reaction, commercial batteries.
- Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction, rate law and rate constant, order and molecularity, half life period, factors
affecting the rate of reaction (particle size, concentration, temperature and catalyst,
concept of activation energy and idea of photochemical reaction.
- Chemical Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical processes, features of dynamic equilibrium, equilibrium constant,
Kp and Kc, relation between Kp and Kc, LeChatelier's principle: effect of pressure,
concentration, temperature and catalyst on chemical equilibrium, equilibrium involving
ions, ionization of weak electrolytes (Ostwald's dilution law), degree of ionization and
ionization constant, solubility and solubility product, common ion effect and their
- Chemical Thermodynamics
Language of thermo-chemistry, standard heats of formation and combustion, heat of
neutralization, Hess's law, energy changes in chemical reactions, spontaneous processes,
second law of thermodynamics, entropy and its physical concept, entropy and criteria of
spontaneity in terms of entropy change of universe, entropy change in phase
transformations, Gibb's free energy and the direction of chemical change, standard free
energy change and equilibrium constant, free energy and useful work.
Hydrogen: Unique position in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses.
Oxygen and ozone: Preparation, properties and uses of oxygen, classification of oxides,
preparation, properties and uses of ozone, structure of ozone, hole in the ozone layer.
Water: Structure of water, solvent properties of water, hard and soft water, detergents and
water pollution, heavy water.
Carbon: Allotropes of carbon including fullerence, preparation, properties and uses of CO
and CO2, poisoning by CO.
Nitrogen: Nitrogen cycle, preparation, properties and uses of nitrogen, preparation,
properties and uses of ammonia, principle of manufacture of ammonia by Haber process,
structure of ammonia, principle of manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald process,
properties and structure of and uses of nitric acid, structure of oxides of nitrogen.
Salphur: Allotropes of sulphur, preparation, properties and uses of H2S, SO2, principle of
manufacture of sulphuric acid by contact process properties and uses of sulphuric acid,
sulpher dioxide and year pollution, acid rain
Phosphorus: Allotropes of phosphorus, phosphien and phosphate fertilizer.
Halogen and halogen acids: Preparation, properties and uses, comparative study of HCL,
HBr and HI, test of halides and tincture of iodine.
Noble gases: Introduction, isolation and uses of noble gases, compounds of xenon –
Metals and metallurgy: Introduction, distinction between metals and non-metals, metalloid,
electrochemical series and occurrence of metal, metallurgical principle and metallurgical
Alkali and alkaline earth metals: Pariodic discussion, general characteristics of alkali and
alkaline earth metals, principle of extraction of sodium (Down's process), properties and
uses of sodium, principle of manufacture of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and
their properties and uses, biological importance of sodium and potassium, preparation,
properties and uses of quicklime, plaster of Paris and bleaching powder, chemistry of
magnesium hydroxide and Epsom salt.
Coinage metals: Introduction, occurrence, extraction and properties of copper, chemistry
of compounds of copper and silver (CuO, Cu2O, CuSO4, 5H2O, AgNO3, and AgCl), purity
of gold (carats and fineness).
Heavy metals: (zinc, iron, mercury and lead): Occurrence, extraction and properties of
zinc, iron and mercury, manufacture of steel, heat treatment of steel, stainless steel,
rusting of iron, galvanization, chemistry of compounds of iron, zinc and mercury and lead
(FeCl3, FeCl3, 6H2O, FeSO4, 7H2O, Zno, ZnSO4, 7H2O, Hg2Cl2, HgCl2, PbO. and Pb3O4),
Mercury pollution and mercury poisoning.
- Organic Chemistry: some basic principles
Introduction: Definition, sources and importance of organic compounds, detection of N, S
and halogens in organic compounds.
Bonding in organic compounds: Tetracovalency of carbon, hybridization (sp, sp-2, sp3
sigma and pi - bonds.
Electronic displacement in covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, mesomeric
effect and resonance.
Fission in covalent bond: Hemolytic and heterolytic fission, electrophiles and nucleophiles,
carbocation and carbonions.
Formula of organic compounds: Empirical, molecular and structura, functional groups,
homologous series, isomerism (structural & stereoisomerism), nomenclature of organic
Classification of hydrocarbons, sources of hydrocarbons, nomenclature.
Alkanes: Nomenclature, preparation, properties and uses of alkanes, octane number,
preparation and properties of methane.
Alkenes: Nomenclature, preparation, properties and uses of alkenes, Markovnikov's rule
and peroxide effect, preparation, properties and uses of ethane.
Alkynes: Preparation, properties and uses of ethyne, acidic character of ethyne.
- Organic halogen compounds
Alkyl halides: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, properties and uses of alkyl halides.
Chloroform: Preparation, properties and uses.
Classification, nomenclature, distinction between 10
preparation of ethanol (hydration of ethane and fermentation) prpperties of alcohols.
Nomenclature, important methods of preparation of diethyl ether, chemical and physical
properties and uses of diethyl eather.
- Carbonyl compounds
Structures and nomenclature, preparation, properties and uses of formaldehyde,
acetaldehyde and acetone, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction.
- Carboxylic Acids
Structures and nomenclature, preparation, properties and uses of formic and acetic acid,
derivatives of carboxylic acid: acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, ester and amides.
Structures, classification, nomenclature, distinction and separation of primary, secondary
and tertiary amines, chemical and physical properties and uses of ethylamine.
- Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Benzene: Structure of benzene, nomenclature and structure of substituted benzene,
properties and uses of benzene.
Aniline: Preparation, properties and uses.
Nitrobenzene: Preparation, properties and uses.
Phenol: Preparation, properties and uses.
- Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic Acids, and Lipids
Carbohydrates: Classification of carbohydrates, structures of glucose and fructose,
functions of carbohydrates.
Protein: Amino acids and peptide bonds, classification of proteins, denaturation and
hydrolysis of protein, functions of proteins.
Nucleic acids: Types and constituents of nucleic acids, functions of nucleic acids.
Lipids: Lipids and triglycerides, phospholipids.
- Polymers, Pesticides, Dyes and Drugs
Polymers: Polymerization (addition and condensation), classification of polymers, and
some important synthetic polymers (polyethylene, PVC, polystyrene, Teflon, polyester,
Terylene (Dacron), nylon 66.
Pesticides: Introduction, DDT, Malathion and pheromones.
Dyes: Classification of dyes with examples (based on chemical constitution and mode of
Drugs: General introduction to drugs: Antiseptic, analgesic, antipyretic, antacids, and
- Bacteria, Virus and Lichens.
- Algae: Nostoc and Spirogyra
- Fungi: Mucor and Agaricus
- Broyophyta: Marchania and Funaria
- Pteridophyta: Fern (Pteridium)
- Gymnosperm: Pinus and Cycas
- Parts of a typical flowering plant (Mustard)
- Leaf: morphology and modification
- Root: Regions of root, Types amd Modification
- Stem: Types and Modification
- Flower: Parts
- Fruits: Types
- Seeds: Dicot, Monocot
- Basic concept of taxonomy and binominal nomenclature
- Characteristics and Economic importance of the following families:
Cruciferae, Solanaceae, Gramineae and Liliaceae
- Types of tissues, Primary internal structure of root, stem and leaf of monocoat and dicot,
Secondary growth of dicot stem
- Water relations (difussion, osmosis, absorption, transpiration and ascent of sap)
- Growth hormones
- Cell as a unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, cell organelles and
- Biochemically important molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids nucleic acid
- Cell division (Mitosis, meiosis and their significance)
- Mendelism, Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
- Concept of incomplete dominance and co-dominance
- Genetic materials (RNA and DNA) gene pool, crossing over, sex linked inheritance and
- Reproduction and development in angiosperms
- Vegetative propagations
- Micro and mega-sporogenesis, micro and megagametogenesis
- Pollination, fertilization and development of dicot and monocot embryo.
- Plant adaptation (hydrophytes, mesophytes and xerophuytes)
- Types of forest in Nepal
- Biodiversity conservation, endangered species of plants and wildfire, causes of
- Abiotic and biotic factors, food chain, food web, trophic level, pond and grassland
- Ecological imbalances and its consequences:
a. Green house effect
b. Depletion of ozone layer
c. Acid rain
d. Pollution: Air, Water, Soil, their sources of pollution, effects and control
- Introduction of biotechnology
- Principles of plant and animal breeding
- Antibiotics, Vaccines
- Tissue and Organ transplantation
- Test tube baby
- Genetic engineering and tissue culture.
- Scope and branches of biology, its relation with other subjects
- Life and its origin, Oparin and Halden’s theory, Miller Urey Experiments
- Life components (Organic and inorganic)
- General characteristics and its classification up to class with examples of the following:
Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, Annelida,
Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and chordata.
- Plasmodium vivax: Habit and habitat, structure (Sporozoite), Life-cycle and control of
- Paramecium Caudatum: Habit and habitat, structure, reproduction (Binary fission and
conjugation with its significance)
- Pheretima posthuma: Habit and habitat, structure, digestive, nervous and reproductive
system and economic importqance of earthworms.
- Rana tigrina: Habit and habitat, structure, digestive, nervous, respiratory, circulatory,
excretory and reproductive systems. Histology of the related organs.
- Mammal (Rabbit / Man): Skin, respiratory, digestive, nervous, circulatory, excretory and
reproductive systems. Histology of the related organs, human blood groups and sense
organs (Eye and Ear)
- Socially significant: Drug abuse, Alcoholism and smoking.
- Communicable: Typhoid, tuberculosis, Ascariasis, Girardiasis and AIDS.
- Non-communicable: Cancer.
- Appendicular and axial
- Pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid, adrenal, islets of langerhans
- Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous.
- Reflex action
- Migration of fishes and birds: Habit and habitat, structure, digestive, nervous and
- Volant (aerial)
- Desert and parastitic
- Definition, Organic evolution
- History, theories of organic evolution (Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism)
- Evidence of organic evolution (morphological, embryological, anatomical,
palentological, chemical and genetical)
- Human evolution.
- Development of frog (Embryonic and post embryonic development)
Note: This document is an outline to facilitate the candidates for the preparation of entrance examination. However, it may not cover all the questions in different subjects of the bachelor level entrance examination.